Socio Economic Factors Associated with Prevalence of Non-Communicable Diseases Among Adults In Punjab, Pakistan
Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes are leading causes of global mortality and disability. Addressing the impact of NCDs aligns with sustainable development goals. Objective: The objective of this paper is to use individual data to investigate the risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adults in Pakistan. Study Design: Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Settings: A sample of 376 patients was selected using a single population proportion due to a lack of data. Participants were chosen through consecutive sampling in three cities: Sialkot, Faisalabad, and Layyah Pakistan. Duration: Over 14 months. Methods: Descriptive and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between various factors and the prevalence of specific non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Results: This study seeks to identify NCD determinants to inform effective prevention and intervention strategies. Age emerges as a primary predictor, with individuals aged 36–55 and above exhibiting higher odds of NCD prevalence than those under 35. Gender also matters, as females have a higher likelihood of NCDs. Urban living is linked to elevated NCD risk due to sedentary lifestyles. Income shows a positive association with NCD susceptibility, although it decreases at higher levels. Smoking, excessive caffeinated or carbonated drink consumption and eating out elevate NCD risk. Conversely, consuming fruits and vegetables, engaging in physical activity, and getting sufficient sleep lower susceptibility. A positive family NCD history increases the likelihood of experiencing NCDs. Conclusion: These findings underscore the need for comprehensive policy interventions to alleviate the NCD burden. Addressing modifiable risk factors like smoking and unhealthy diets is critical. Public awareness, community engagement, and regulatory measures are recommended. Collaborative efforts across sectors are essential for promoting health and preventing NCDs, while also addressing disparities and healthcare access. Overall, this study offers valuable insights for effective NCD combat strategies.